Copy Rights

About this site:

This web site is non-commercial.  The main goal has been to revive the ancient history of Sudan, by presenting a brief introduction to the, almost, forgotten ancient civilization in Sudan.


Any written material by the author may be referred to or quoted as long as a copyrights notice is observed: .

My intention, is to make proper reference to all the sources contained in this web site. If you noticed any improper reference lettering, please contact me.


Most of the main-articles include footnotes; a bibliography corresponding to the footnotes is found at the "Resources" page. Since 2009, a new citation system was employed. "Ibid." is not used when referring to a preceding citation in the same page. Instead, the author's last name is cited along with the number of the preceding footnote (i.e. where either the full citation, or a secondary reference to the full citation is listed).

External links:

 This web site contains links to external sites; this is to declare no responsibility for the content or the private acts of these external sites.

To contact the author please mail to

Ibrahim Omer  Jan. 2010


The primary material of the website is authored by Ibrahim Omer © 2008.